Archive for category Reference

Cato Institute: The One-Drop Rule in Hawaii? The Akaka Bill and the Future of Race-Based Government (Capitol Hill Briefing)

Cato Institute: The One-Drop Rule in Hawaii? The Akaka Bill and the Future of Race-Based Government (Capitol Hill Briefing)

The power point presentation in PDF format of Jere Krischel’s presentation is available here.

Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Japan

The Hawaiian revolution took place on January 17, 1893. Within two days all the nations having local consuls in Honolulu gave letters of de facto recognition to President Sanford B. Dole of the Provisional Government. Those letters were published in the Honolulu newspapers, and can also be found in the Morgan Report of the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs in February 1894; see Diplomatic Recognition of the Provisional Government.

Mr. Suburo Fujii, Agent and Consul General of Japan, sent a letter of de facto recognition, in English language, to Hawaii President Dole, dated January 19, 1893. Apparently the Japanese consulate continued the same level of relations with the Provisional Government, and later the Republic, as it had maintained with the Kingdom. It is unclear whether the subsequent establishment of the Republic resulted in a formal letter of recognition de jure like the ones given by at least nineteen other nations. No such letter can be found in the archives of the State of Hawaii. But it would be surprising if Japan had failed to recognize the Republic, because there were tens of thousands of Japanese nationals working as contract laborers on Hawaii’s sugar plantations at the time of the revolution, and there was no break in further arrivals.

Ken Conklin contacted Ms. Harumi Katsumata, Consul, Consulate-General of Japan in Hawaii, inquiring whether there might be a record of diplomatic recognition of the Republic either in the files of the Japanese Consulate in Honolulu or in the foreign affairs archives in Tokyo. Following a period of several weeks for research, Consul Katsumata sent an e-mail stating that there is no information about Japan’s recognition of the Republic of Hawaii, either in Honolulu or in Tokyo. However, she did attach a photograph (shown below) of a notice published by the Republic of Hawaii Foreign Office on April 24, 1897. The notice announced that the Consulate of Japan was being upgraded to the status of Legation and that the Consul currently serving at that time would continue to represent Japan. The published notice included the full text of an “autograph letter of His Majesty the Emperor” to President Dole, announcing the upgrade of status, bearing the manual seal of the Empire and countersigned by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Thus it is clear that until April 24, 1897 the Republic enjoyed the same level of diplomatic relations with Japan that the Kingdom had previously enjoyed; and after that date Japan granted even higher status to the Republic by upgrading its Consulate to a Legation. The wording of the Emperor’s letter to President Dole is very similar to the wording of the letters of recognition de jure that had been sent by other Emperors, Kings, Queens, and Presidents.

In March of 1881 King Kalakaua had visited the Meiji Emperor of Japan (Mutsuhito) on his trip around the world, and awarded to the Emperor the highest Royal Order of the Hawaiian Kingdom — the Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Kamehameha with collar.  Thus it is especially poignant when that same Emperor personally signs a letter to Hawaii President Sanford Dole raising the status of Japan’s diplomatic representation from consulate to legation.  The Emperor was giving high status to the Republic — a revolutionary government which had overthrown a fellow monarchy which had previously awarded the Emperor its highest honor.

 

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – United States

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

U.S. President Grover Cleveland personally signed an official letter giving full diplomatic recognition to the Republic of Hawaii.

Unfortunately the original signed and sealed copy of that letter cannot be found in the Archives of the State of Hawaii. However, there are several other letters in the archives signed by officials of the U.S. and Hawaii proving that Grover Cleveland’s original signed and sealed letter was in fact delivered to President Dole by appointment at a meeting of the Executive Council of the Republic of Hawaii.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Switzerland

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Original of a two-page letter from Switzerland, in French, dated September 11, 1894, to President Sanford B. Dole, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. The letter was signed by the Swiss federal counsel [Attorney General] on behalf of the President of the Swiss Confederation, and also countersigned by the Chancellor of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Foreign Minister [Secretary of State] also sent a cover letter to his Hawaiian counterpart (Minister of Foreign Affairs Francis M. Hatch) to accompany the letter to President Dole. No English translations have survived.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Spain

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Don Alfonso XIII, King of Spain, and Dona Maria Christina, Regent Queen of Spain, both personally signed a joint one-page letter in Spanish to Sanford B. Dole on November 26, 1894, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. There was a one-page English translation. The Foreign Ministry of Spain sent an accompanying two-page cover letter in Spanish to Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs Francis M. Hatch, for which no English translation survives.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Russia

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Tsar Alexander III of Russia personally signed a letter to President Dole, in Russian, dated August 26, 1894, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. There is a two-page translation into French, but no English translation.

In 1883 Tsar Alexander III had his coronation.  That ceremony was attended by Col. Curtis P. Iaukea, who was sent by King Kalakaua as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary.  On orders of the King, Minister Iaukea presented to Tsar Alexander III the highest Royal Order of the Hawaiian Kingdom — the Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Kamehameha with collar.  Thus it is an especially powerful diplomatic statement when that same Tsar personally signs a letter to Hawaii President Sanford Dole granting recognition de jure to the Republic as the rightful government of Hawaii — a revolutionary Republic which had overthrown the Tsar’s fellow monarch, Queen Liliuokalani, who was Kalakaua’s sister.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Portugal

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Dom Carlos I, King of Portugal (and ruler and conqueror of many other places which he lists), personally signed a one-page letter, in Portuguese, to Sanford B. Dole, dated December 17, 1894, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. The date is written out in words at the end of the letter just above his signature. No English translation survives.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Peru

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Andres A. Caceres, Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru, personally signed a two-page letter to Sanford B. Dole, dated September 10, 1894, recognizing the Republic. The Minister of Foreign affairs sent an accompanying letter.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Sweden/Norway

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Oscar, King of Sweden and Norway of the Goths and Vandals, personally signed a letter in Swedish to Sanford B. Dole dated December 17, 1894, recognizing the Republic. There is a translation into French, but not English.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Netherlands

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Emma, Queen Regent of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, personally signed a two-page letter dated November 2, 1894 to President Sanford B. Dole, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. A two-page translation into English was certified as accurate by the Netherlands local consul in Honolulu, John Paty, who also sent a cover letter to Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs Francis M. Hatch.

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