Archive for category Reference

Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – United States

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

U.S. President Grover Cleveland personally signed an official letter giving full diplomatic recognition to the Republic of Hawaii.

Unfortunately the original signed and sealed copy of that letter cannot be found in the Archives of the State of Hawaii. However, there are several other letters in the archives signed by officials of the U.S. and Hawaii proving that Grover Cleveland’s original signed and sealed letter was in fact delivered to President Dole by appointment at a meeting of the Executive Council of the Republic of Hawaii.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Switzerland

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Original of a two-page letter from Switzerland, in French, dated September 11, 1894, to President Sanford B. Dole, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. The letter was signed by the Swiss federal counsel [Attorney General] on behalf of the President of the Swiss Confederation, and also countersigned by the Chancellor of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Foreign Minister [Secretary of State] also sent a cover letter to his Hawaiian counterpart (Minister of Foreign Affairs Francis M. Hatch) to accompany the letter to President Dole. No English translations have survived.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Spain

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Don Alfonso XIII, King of Spain, and Dona Maria Christina, Regent Queen of Spain, both personally signed a joint one-page letter in Spanish to Sanford B. Dole on November 26, 1894, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. There was a one-page English translation. The Foreign Ministry of Spain sent an accompanying two-page cover letter in Spanish to Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs Francis M. Hatch, for which no English translation survives.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Russia

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Tsar Alexander III of Russia personally signed a letter to President Dole, in Russian, dated August 26, 1894, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. There is a two-page translation into French, but no English translation.

In 1883 Tsar Alexander III had his coronation.  That ceremony was attended by Col. Curtis P. Iaukea, who was sent by King Kalakaua as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary.  On orders of the King, Minister Iaukea presented to Tsar Alexander III the highest Royal Order of the Hawaiian Kingdom — the Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Kamehameha with collar.  Thus it is an especially powerful diplomatic statement when that same Tsar personally signs a letter to Hawaii President Sanford Dole granting recognition de jure to the Republic as the rightful government of Hawaii — a revolutionary Republic which had overthrown the Tsar’s fellow monarch, Queen Liliuokalani, who was Kalakaua’s sister.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Portugal

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Dom Carlos I, King of Portugal (and ruler and conqueror of many other places which he lists), personally signed a one-page letter, in Portuguese, to Sanford B. Dole, dated December 17, 1894, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. The date is written out in words at the end of the letter just above his signature. No English translation survives.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Peru

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Andres A. Caceres, Constitutional President of the Republic of Peru, personally signed a two-page letter to Sanford B. Dole, dated September 10, 1894, recognizing the Republic. The Minister of Foreign affairs sent an accompanying letter.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Sweden/Norway

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Oscar, King of Sweden and Norway of the Goths and Vandals, personally signed a letter in Swedish to Sanford B. Dole dated December 17, 1894, recognizing the Republic. There is a translation into French, but not English.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Netherlands

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

Emma, Queen Regent of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, personally signed a two-page letter dated November 2, 1894 to President Sanford B. Dole, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. A two-page translation into English was certified as accurate by the Netherlands local consul in Honolulu, John Paty, who also sent a cover letter to Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs Francis M. Hatch.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Mexico

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

President Porfirio Diaz of Mexico personally signed a one-page letter in Spanish to President Sanford B. Dole on August 8, 1894, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. The Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico sent an accompanying one-page letter in Spanish. The Secretary’s letter was accompanied by an English translation.

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Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii – Italy

See also: International Recognition of the Republic of Hawaii

King Umberto I of Italy personally signed a one-page letter in Italian to President Dole dated September 23, 1894, recognizing the Republic of Hawaii. Two-page translation into English, translation certified as accurate by the consul of Italy in Honolulu on October 6, 1894 with seal of consulate next to his signature.

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